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Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within the ovary or on its surface that are filled with a liquid or semisolid substance. Women have two ovaries, each about the size and shape of an almond on each side of the uterus.

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Causes

Most Ovarian Cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much less common. During a woman's menstrual cycle, an egg grows in a sac called a follicle. This sac is located inside the ovaries. In most cases, this follicle or sac breaks open and releases an egg. But if the follicle doesn't break open, the fluid inside the follicle can form a cyst on the ovary.

Follicle sacs typically dissolve after releasing an egg. But if the sac doesn’t dissolve and the opening of the follicle seals, additional fluid can develop inside the sac, and this accumulation of fluid causes a corpus luteum cyst. Other types of Ovarian Cysts include:
Dermoid cysts: sac-like growths on the ovaries that can contain hair, fat, and other tissue
Cystadenomas: noncancerous growths that can develop on the outer surface of the ovaries
Endometriomas: tissues that normally grow inside the uterus can develop outside the uterus and attach to the ovaries, resulting in a cyst

Some women develop a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This condition means the ovaries contain a large number of small cysts. It can cause the ovaries to enlarge. If left untreated, polycystic ovaries can cause infertility.
Symptoms
Pain in the abdomen, pelvis,
sometimes radiating to the low back
Feeling of bloating or indigestion
Increased abdominal girth
Feeling an urge to have a bowel movement
Having difficult, painful bowel movements
Pain during sexual intercourse
Pain in the lower right or
left quadrant of the abdomen on one side
Pain with fever or vomiting

Risks If Condition Persists

Hormonal problems
These include taking the fertility drug clomiphene (Clomid), which is used to cause you to ovulate.
Pregnancy
Sometimes, the cyst that forms when you ovulate stays on your ovary throughout your pregnancy.
Endometriosis
This condition causes uterine endometrial cells to grow outside your uterus. Some of the tissue can attach to your ovary and form a growth
A severe pelvic infection
If the infection spreads to the ovaries, it can cause cysts
Recurrence
If you've had one, you're likely to develop more

About Treatment at Pelvinic

At Pelvinic, we perform a specialised Hysteroscopy Treatment for treating Ovarian Cyst. Here are some advantages of our Hysteroscopy Treatment over the Traditional Surgical Procedure.
logo Less Pain
Our Hysteroscopy Treatment is Painless, compared to Open surgery procedure which is painful.
logo No tissue damage
Our Hysteroscopy Treatment cause minimal cuts and wounds compared to Open surgery causes which causes cuts and wounds
logo No Diet Restrictions
Our Hysteroscopy Treatment doesn't cause cuts and wounds compared to Open surgery causes which causes cuts and wounds
logo Fast Recovery
Can resume work immediatly
logo Minimally Invasive
Our Hysteroscopy Treatment is minimally invasive compared to open surgery for which its large
logo No Rest Required
Go back to a normal routine within 2 to 4 days.

Patient Testimonials

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Mrs Saranya Veeramuthu, 20 years, married with previous bad obstretics history is a happy patient of Dr Meenakshi Banerjee, a specialised Obstretician dealing with High risk Obstretics and Infertility cases.
Mrs Saranya Veeramuthu
Ghazibad
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Mrs Bharadwaj, a Sarpanch by profession and a face of modern women power, smiling after being successfully treated by Dr Meenakshi Banerjee for her uterine premalignant condition. She underwent Laparoscopic surgery and resumed her busy schedule within week of surgery.
Mrs Bharadwajt
Lucknow
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Dr Renuka, a Dentist by profession was having problems in having baby owing to large uterine fibroid. She consulted Dr Meenakshi and taking her treatment helped her become a proud mother of a sweet little kid. She not only got the benefits of normal delivery but also chose to become a member of proud Pelvinic family.
Dr Renuka
New Delhi

Treatment Procedure for Ovarian Cyst

A cyst on your ovary can be found during a pelvic exam. Doctor will recommend tests to determine its type and whether you need treatment. Possible tests include:

• Pelvic ultrasound- A wandlike device (transducer) sends and receives high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to create an image of your uterus and ovaries on a video screen. Your doctor analyzes the image to confirm the presence of a cyst, help identify its location and determine whether it's solid, filled with fluid or mixed.

• Laparoscopy- Using a laparoscope — a slim, lighted instrument inserted into your abdomen through a small incision — your doctor can see your ovaries and remove the Ovarian Cyst. This is a surgical procedure that requires anesthesia.
• CA 125 blood test - Blood levels of a protein called cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) often are elevated in women with ovarian cancer. If your cyst is partially solid and you're at high risk of ovarian cancer, your doctor might order this test.
Treatment depends on your age, the type and size of your cyst, and your symptoms. Doctor might recommend hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, to keep Ovarian Cysts from recurring.

However, birth control pills won't shrink an existing cyst
Any type of ovarian mass, including a cyst, can be surgically removed either with laparoscopy, or if needed, an open abdominal incision (laparotomy) if it is causing severe pain, not resolving, or if it is suspicious in any way.

• Open surgery
• Laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive technique. In laparoscopic method, only the Ovarian Cyst is removed by preserving the ovarian tissue or ovaries. The laparoscopic method is also helpful in the confirmation of presence of Ovarian Cysts.

• The patient will be subjected to general anesthesia or local anesthesia for sedation.
• The surgeon will make three or four small incisions in the abdomen to insert laparoscope and other surgical instruments to remove the cysts.
• The cyst is separated from the healthy ovarian tissue and removed. It the cyst involves the whole ovary. It may not be possible to separate the cyst alone, necessitating the removal of the ovary. Sometimes, if a cyst cannot be removed completely then either partial removal or aspiration is done.
• After the completion of the procedure, the incisions are sewed with dissolvable stitches and the growth is sent to a pathologist who examines the tissue under a microscope to make the final diagnosis as to the type of cyst present.

Open Surgery
If the laparoscopic removal is not possible due to adhesions or other problems encountered during the surgery like - if the cyst is very large or if there is a suspicion of cancer, an open surgery will have to be performed. If a cystic mass is cancerous, you might need to have your uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes removed (total hysterectomy) and possibly chemotherapy or radiation.

Advantages of laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy:
• Shorter stay in the hospital
• Recovery is very fast
• Pain and discomfort after the surgery is very less
• Less risk of infections
• Fewer side effects
After the Ovarian Cyst has been removed, you'll feel pain in your tummy, although this should improve in a few days. Refrain from performing strenuous activities such as heavy lifting in gym or sports.

Do not lift anything that weighs more than 5 kgs. for 2- 4 weeks post-surgery. After a laparoscopy or a laparotomy, it may take as long as 2- 4 weeks before you can resume normal activities. If the cyst is sent off for testing, the results should come back in a few weeks and your consultant will discuss with you whether you need any further treatment. Contact Doctor if you notice the following symptoms during your recovery:

• heavy bleeding
• severe pain or swelling in your abdomen
• a high temperature (fever)
• dark or smelly vaginal discharge

These symptoms may indicate an infection

Why Pelvinic

Pelvinic - The Pelvic Floor Clinic, is a proctology specialty center. We offer treatment and cure for diseases in the pelvic area under one roof. Treatment is done by our experienced doctors using latest technologies at a very affordable cost.
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Frequently Asked Questions

Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures (more than 3 cm in diameter) within an ovary that contain a liquid, or semisolid substance. They may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral. They can vary in size from a few centimeters to the size of a large melon. They may be thin walled and contain only fluid (simple cyst) or may be more complex, containing thick fluid, blood, septa or solid areas.

There are many different types of ovarian cyst that can occur in women. Before menopause, most of them are “functional??? cysts like follicular cyst and corpus luteum cyst. These resolve spontaneously within a few weeks or months. Others are pathological, like serous and mucinous cystadenoma, endometrioma (chocolate cyst), dermoid cyst etc.
Ovarian cysts are common. Most women will be unaware that they have a cyst as they often cause no symptoms and disappear spontaneously with time. 1 in 10 women may need a surgery for an ovarian cyst at some point in their lives.

Most ovarian cysts in premenopausal women are asymptomatic and resolve without women ever
realizing that they are there. When a cyst causes symptoms, pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis
is the most common one.  Others are

  • Painful periods or change in pattern of your periods
  • Pain related to your bowels/ pressure on bowels,
  • Pain during intercourse (dyspareunia)
  • Increased frequency and urgency of urination
  • A change in appetite or feeling full or a sense of bloating
  • A distended or swollen abdomen
  • Difficulty in conceiving (becoming pregnant) which may be linked to endometriosis.

The pain can be caused from:

  • Rupture of the cyst,
  • Rapid growth and stretching,
  • Bleeding into the cyst, or
  • Twisting of the cyst around its blood supply (known as torsion)

Sometimes ovarian cysts may be noticed by a doctor during a clinical examination of the pelvis.  More commonly they are diagnosed during an ultrasound examination. A TVS ( transvaginal ultrasound)  is better than an abdominal ultrasound for determining the size and appearance of ovarian cyst.  Cysts can also be detected with other imaging methods, such as CT scan or MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging)

If a woman is in her 40’s, or younger, and has regular menstrual periods, most ovarian masses are “functional ovarian cysts,??? Example follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts. These are related to the process of ovulation that happens with the menstrual cycle. They usually disappear on their own during a future menstrual cycle.  These cysts are watched for a few menstrual cycles to verify that they disappear.
Besides routine tests to determine your baseline health status, blood tests like CA 125, HE 4, AFP, HCG may be offered. Also imaging tests like Colour Doppler, CT scan or MRI may be suggested depending on the size and complexity of the cyst
Well, if your scan is reassuring and you have no symptoms, you may not need any treatment If  you have symptoms or if the ultrasound shows a large or complex cyst or one that is increasing in size, you need to be further investigated and treated.
Depending on the symptoms, your age, size and type of the cyst and desire for further child bearing, your doctor may either treat you conservatively or suggest surgery. Surgery is done either by laparoscopy (keyhole) or laparotomy (open surgery) Laparotomy is usually recommended if the cyst is very large or rarely if there is a suspicion of cancer. Your gynecologist will discuss these procedures with you and advice you which procedure is best for your situation.
The ovaries produce important hormones before menopause and therefore in most cases only the cyst is removed preserving the ovary. This is known as cystectomy. However, there are circumstances where one or both the ovaries may have to be removed. Example, if the cyst is very large and replaced the whole ovary, or the cyst has twisted so much that the blood supply has been completely cut off, or, rarely, if there is a suspicion of cancer.  Your surgeon may not know what surgery is to be done till the surgery begins.
Taking combined oral contraceptive pills will not help a simple cyst disappear although taking the pill may stop further cyst developing in the future.